Historical Art
by Yonita Fairfax


With trees above,there is now a glass cushion on a table with the names around it. This was the actual spot at the Tower of London which was used by Queen Victoria to designate that Sir Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham on 17 May 1521,the Countess of Salisbury, Margaret Plantagenet 'Blessed Princess'on 27 May 1541, and Queen Anne Boleyn on 19 May 1536, were executed there. The site is almost opposite to St. Peter ad Vincula, where they were perhaps first moved and buried. It is close to the White Tower where so much dramatic history of the nation took place. Note that the dates for Edward and Margaret are ten days and twenty years apart. The King was still Henry VIII and they were all were executed in May which seems strange. Their relationship can be seen on the following pages, as all were family members.

Family photos momentoes collage

family photos momentoes collage

*If you would like to see Family tree for Prince George of Clarence's parents, Richard Plantagenet and Cecily Nevill with their portraits, starting from Edward III, then Click here.

*If you would like to see Family tree for Fairfax family Connection with RICHARD III, then Click here

*If you would like to see Our Family Relationship with MARY BOLEYN
Her sister ANNE BOLEYN married Henry VIII in a secret private ceremony in January 1533, whilst he was still married to Katherine of Aragon.
Anne was pregnant.
Finally Henry obtained a divorce from Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, having dismissed the Pope and founded the Church of England.
Anne gave birth to her daughter Elizabeth, who was destined to become Elizabeth I, our virgin Queen,later in September of that year.

Anne was executed on 19 May 1536 which is the date chosen for Harry's Wedding to Mehgan whose mother went to a school called Fairfax in USA. MARY BOLEYN , Anne's older sister, became the second wife of William STAFFORD, (later Sir ) having first married William CAREY. William was a young man courtier connected via Henry VII,a cousin in Henry's Bedchamber, which was considered an important post as it was within earshot of the King.
Those places were heavily in demand, severely restricted, and only given to older known trutworthy families.' being close to the king's favourite meant being close to the King'. After the gloom of Henry VII court, it was a young lively Court, with many younger men. As young men the courtiers tried to excel at the pastimes Henry enjoyed, such as hawking, riding and dancing. They paid for their own clothes. Henry Carey did not gossip and is not known for having wanted to push his relations, or demand posts for them.
( Much history in particular in France is based on what was asked for by the mistresses in jewels, property, or how they headed political factions when they were seeking power.
Henry VII had built on a separate area called the Privy Chamber which was more private, with bedroom, private rooms, library and his own garden.
Henry VIII built more private rooms.
The Maunsell family were courtiers.
See Lady Margaret Fairfax marries Richard Maunsell. His younger brother Hugh 's son Robert was also a member of Henry 's Bedchamber, Groom to the Bedchamber.
The Wingfield famly having Ambassadorial posts with Sir Thomas Boleyn to the Netherlands

So Henry Carey did not make a fuss about the King and Mary, unlike Edward Stafford, who was executed having made Henry very angry. In France for example it was considered to be an honour to be singled out by the king ' and most families would have been pleased that the king had chosen their relative. But the Staffords were an older family by far than the marriage if there was one, hotly debated by Historians to Owen Tudor. See further down where Henry's reaction to Edward Stafford is mentioned, and the effect on our family.
Mary and Henry Carey lived in Greenwich Palace which made it easier for Henry VIII to meet and talk to her. She is said to have become an official mistress of the King, although Henry was generally discreet and had another house for his rendez vous.He acknowledged his son, Henry Fitzroy from his mistress Bessie Blount but not another natural child, such as those children Mary had.Although Henry granted something and her son Henry become Lord Hunston.check spelling.

A great deal is spoken about Anne and Mary's time on the continent as young girls.
Anne was first at a finishing type school for 18 months at Malines,or Mechelen, the Netherlands Burgundian Court at Malines of the Archduchess Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy (10 January 1480 - 1 December 1530). (daughter of Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy. Margaret of York, her step mother had helped Mary marry him.).
Because Anne wrote to her father in a mature handwriting therefore could not have been 7 years old, as was at first supposed by historians, when she went over there for her education.
Living in the adjoining palace, and often at his aunt's court, was also the young nephew, Charles later to be Charles V Holy Roman Emperor, whose father Margaret's brother had died at 28 having married into the spanish royal house, to Johanna of Castile the older sister of Katherine of Aragon, Henry VIII's spanish wife.
Lady Ann Stafford was one of Katherine's ladies in waiting.
There is also a letter from Sir Thomas Boleyn, Ann's father, Henry's Ambassador, who was sad he said, to be forced through political reasons to remove Anne from the Court at Malines.Whilst at Malines, Anne would have seen the painting by Van Eyck, called The Arnolfini Portrait, as it was owned by Margaret and in the Palace at Malines at that time.
Henry had changed his aleigance from the Emperor Maximilian I, whose daughter was the Archduchess Margaret at Malines to the French Francois I at Fontainebleu.
He therefore decided to marry his sister MaryRose to the French King. Mary Boleyn, her parents, and other English nobles, all went over to France for the wedding of MaryRose Tudor to Louis XII.
There is no real evidence that Anne meets up with them. Margaret might have been annoyed at losing her, being very fond of her, and delayed her departure.They had just been over to congratulate her nephew a young Charles V for a victory over the French where Margaret had
the Ladies Peace. Sir Richard Wingfield had represented the English interest. He probably was brother or father to Elizabeth mother of Richard. See Burke's Irish Records for Maunsell. As reproduced.
So suddenly Margaret was expeacted to give up one of her favourite protegees because Henry had changed his friendship or diplomatic mind. Henry was either very clever or it was Wolsey behind him. Margaret might not have received Anne's father's message immediately since travelling took more time then.
It must have been a great blow for Margaret who had a really hard life, having lost two husbands. And she was a strong faithful woman, but it seems also very much in obediance to her father, Maximilian. We are witnessing her how the map of Europe changed and how the people behind the scenes did the work of carrying it out. Henry was always the pivot and the balancing power. Death was a big factor in politics. So much could change fairly immediately, as shown by the marriage of MaryRose Tudor to the French King. He died so soon after their marriage. She marries her lover and the descendants of that line end up as being the 9 day Queen Jane who did not bow down as she was an intellectual girl who did not want to be queen.

However Anne is known to have been in France at the Court of Reine Claude, once Francis I had become King, after Louis had died. He might have had an eye for the ladies but it does not automatically mean that he seduced at will. The book about Mary Boleyn says that she was misjudged. She was very feminine and attractive rather comely looking with an appeal and stayed faithful to William Stafford in the country away from Court.
MaryRose Tudor's marriage to the elderly Louis only lasted 82 days. French history says he died ' as a result of too much exertion in the marriage bed !'

Mary Rose, generally called the French Queen, did something which would have cost her family almost 7 million pounds in today's money. Luckily it was a sum paid for by Wolsey. Her brother Henry had fined her, because she married her lover Charles Brandon,without his permission. It was in March 1515 in the Palais de Cluny with Francis Francois I present, so there had to be an official wedding later at Greenwich on 13 May, once she had returned to England. Henry had promised before she left England for her marriage to the old Louis, that next time round, she could chose her own husband.
How could she have thought that the marriage would not last? Would she really have asked her brother that permission? The couple beggged forgiveness and had been banking on the fact that Henry loved them both: she was his favourite sister and he was Henry's drinking friend. Henry was only 6 years into his reign, still young and lusty.

Going back to Ann Boleyn. Since at Anne was able at 12 years old to carry a train, so it was decided that she would stay and learn French ways and manners, within the strict household of Reine Claude, the slightly lame wife of the worldly well educated dandy Francis I. Only in 1520 did Anne aged 19 return to England. Called upon for her fluency in French, her ability to translate, and being in the service of the Queen, Katherine of Aragon, when some French courtiers had come over, Anne was asked to help. She was noticed by Henry. Her dancing and fashions attracted him. Then he started to fall in love with her.

In any case Mary had returned to Court earlier, with MaryRose Tudor, whose household she entered for some time. Henry had his liason with her. Henry then married her to William Carey ( descended from Henry VII) and sent William to Ireland where he died shortly afterwards.
Historians argue about it but think that only one of Mary's two children had Henry as a father.Henry Carey, Mary's son, took over his grandfather's Irish Ormond title which was one way of deciding that Mary was the older sister- one of the historical debated points about the sisters.See Prof. Barnard

Sir William STAFFORD was in the household of the Duke of Norfolk, which is how he knew the sisters. The Duke, uncle to the girls, was close to Henry, being the Earl Marshall, hence part of the king's 'inner circle'.
According to novelists the fact that Mary did not make any money or titles out of her affair, greatly annoyed her father, uncle, and Anne.
One reason it is said why Anne stood up for marriage to the King, or nothing.
Once Anne was married to Henry, and then found out that her sister had married William Stafford, she forbade Mary to come to court. She then took over the education of Mary's son.
It is said that Mary and William had two children. They lived at Rochester Court and Mary was happy no longer living at Greenwich Palace, even though cut off financially by her family . Marrying Mary had been a rescue type love story by Sir William.

After Mary had died, then Sir William STAFFORD, now enobled, married Lady DOROTHY STAFFORD.They were distant cousins.
Lady Dorothy became a well known character; part of the Protestant diapora who went to Bern to be close to John Foxe. Her mother, Princess Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, ( married to Richard Pole) had become head of the noble Catholic families who had not wanted to relinquish their religion.
But sadly Princess Margaret was executed rather gruesomly on 27 May 1541, by Henry VIII who felt she was meddling with religious issues. She denied this. Her family, such as her son, Cardinal Reginald Pole, might have been doing so. Her elder son , Henry, Lord Montague or Montacute, was also executed, 2 dec 1538.By 1542, his son Henry was starved to death in the Tower as Henry did not want a scandal by executing a child.

The current Queen's descent to her Bowles grandmother comes through Henry Montacute. He married Jane Nevill, daughter of George, 5 Baron Bergavenny. Then the line goes to Catherine Pole married to Francis Hastings, 2 Earl of Huntingdon.

Princess Margaret said she felt that she had arranged good marriages for her children.Therefore because of her mother's execution Lady Ursula POLE did not inherit.
Dorothy, was the daughter of Lady Ursula who had married Henry, Lord STAFFORD, the son of 3 Duke of Buckingham, Edward STAFFORD ( first creation), premier peer of the country. Because Edward, had been executed, his son Henry,Lord STAFFORD lost his lands,and income. He did not inherit the title as 4 Duke, which he would have done, since the family was then attainted. ( The author Kelly Hart says 'Descended from Edward III several times over, the Staffords were suspected of considering themeselves more royal than the Tudors.Anne and therefore her brother came from three lines, and was Henry's cousin several times over. )
It was because he complained that Edward Stafford was executed. It is said he annoyed Henry over a period of time. Edward, unaware that times had changed, because the family had been ducal for so long, the most aristocratic family of the land, 'a well established Ducal family', -he overdid flaunting his power and royal lineage.Or so Henry thought. Edward had tried to consolidate his widespread property which caused Henry to feel threatened as some Crown lands were close by.
( As with many men in the 2018 period of time, Edward had failed to take into account that times had moved on. He needed the support of the king.'the personal was truly the political under Henry VIII's autocratic rule of absolute ruler ; culminating as in Charles I idea of 'divine Right of Kings'.
The affair had taken place in the early days of Henry's reign. Edward's sister Lady Anne Stafford was having a liason with the king and her husband objected to this. So did her brother Edward, who was furious ' that his sister could demean the family by becoming the mistress of any man, even a king'. A Lord Stafford had been called to Parliament in 1299.( Lady Anne would have been if one looks at the family relationships, an aunt to the Boleyn sisters. The Howards, Staffords, and Pole's were the leading Roman Catholic noble families and in-laws of each other). ( Kelly Hart, p. 21 The Mistresses of Henry VIII). This affair took place in 1510 the early days of Henry's reign when Katherine of Aragon was pregnant.Katherine was also upset and is said to have made one of the few 'scenes' with her husband, that she would make during her marriage.This is why it has been reported ny the Spanish Ambassador, Louis Caroz at the time, not Chapuys till 1529. Contemporary wisdom held that sex during pregnancy and therefore dangerous, immoral and risky for the life of the baby. As already mentioned Lady Anne was a lady-in-waiting for the queen and would have prepared Katherine's dressing for bed, getting up, changing during the day, and helped her with other personal services, such as her hair. Clothing was heavy and elaborate with many buttons as well as corsets to be done up.And headdresses were elaborate. The king would be announced and it was known when he would visit his wife for the night. The author Kelly Hart says that the duke would have been informed by Lady Anne's sister, Elizabeth Lady Fitzwalter. Lady Elizabeth Stafford, daughter of Edward Stafford was unhappily married to the 3 Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard, the girls' uncle. She would be the girls aunt,as Lady Anne and Lady Elizabeth Fitzwalter would have been their great Aunt .Lady Ann was married to Lord George Hastings, 3 Baron Hastings, 4 Baron de Moleyns, 3 Baron Hungerford 6 Baron Boreaux. His grandfather had been executed by Richard III, having been one of Edward IV's close friends. This George Hastings was keen to recover the title of Earl, hence ' it was risky to send his wife to a convent'. There was a brother Henry Stafford, who around 1510, had gained the title Earl of Wiltshire. After his death it went to Thomas Boleyn. ( Alison Weir also refers to this episode. Henry VIII and Court, p.123 CSP Spanish papers).
See the letter from Elizabeth I's favourite Robert Dudley to Henry Lord Stafford, who had given Henry, some decent clothes. He was dressed very elegantly in spite of now being very poor.
It was unusual for a family to have such deep loses on each side one generation after another for three generations.

Sir William STAFFORD therefore becomes a direct Grandfather 12 times.
They are all an important part of the descent from GEORGE, Duke of Clarence.


For another side of the family, the Fairfax Maunsell side, the date 1535 would present a great worry. Unlike MaryRose Tudor, twenty years earlier, Lady Margaret FAIRFAX, had sought her father's permission, for her next marriage as a 'feme sole'. She had been married and was giving up her status. Her husband, who had been William Sawyer, had died or been killed, we do not know which as Burke does not tell us, or give us a date. William had been a cousin as his mother was Margaret's mother's sister, also a Gascoigne, so one can only assume it had been a family approved marriage. She had no issue from the marriage.

Sir Thomas Fairfax and his wife AgnesAnn Gascoigne had agreed that their daughter, Lady Margaret, she could marry a fourth son, Richard MAUNSELL, on 5 August 1535. His grandfather was a Richard WINGFIELD, and could have come from the Ambassadorial family of that same name. His younger MAUNSELL brother was one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber of Henry VIII. So they seemed to be a courtier, political family, in the know about the vicitudes of Henry's moods.

The worry was because the Pope Clement VII, a Medici Pope, was threatning Henry with ex-communication.
It had been mooted for some time. But in 1534 Henry had through the Act of Supremacy declared himself as Head of the Church. This meant that should an ex-communication happen, marriages conducted around thoses years could have been pronounced invalid. Also since the dead are not buried, there is a serious threat of disease.
In fact Henry was excommuicated but only 3 years later, in 1538. Pope Clement VII had drawn up the bull of ex-communication on 30 August 1535, but it had not yet been issued. He then died in September, and a new Pope Paul had taken over but pronounced the excommunication later on, by which time it was ineffective in English law, since Papal authority had been renounced.
The best solution had been what Margaret and Richard had done. In spite of the political uncertanty, they had married and waited like the rest of the nation for the outcome of Henry's differences with Rome.

Perhaps Margaret had held her reception in the Great Hall of Gilling Castle, where they lived. The Hall to modern eyes looked as if a jumble sale monster had just vomited through the window. Even the coloured escucheons of the related families did not relieve the darkness caused by the panelling and the wooden tables and chairs. Perhaps Margaret stood under a large tapestry that they hung like those of 'The Lady and a Unicorn', which made her feel young and virginal.

There must be some compensations, she thought and she longed for a drawing room full of blues and yellows, as if summer had been captured and kept alive. Richard whom she loved had been approved by her father. She would never have behaved the way Mary Rose Tudor, Henry VIII 's sister had done, twenty years before, which had cost so much money to her family. Margaret gave her husband many children, the first Thomas being our lineage. The name Thomas continued bar one John for another 5 generations down to Yonita's grandfather. Click here.